FH Video

Video showing why Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) needs to be addressed. 

HC only - FH-the challenge to find and treat

FH - The Challenge to Find and Treat - View a series of podcasts on familial hypercholesterolemia from the BJC. Register here to view more podcasts from the BJC.

Heart of the Family - combined

Watch this film to hear GP, Dr Sarah Jarvis, and patients, talk about inherited high cholesterol

Movie - About HEART UK

To hear how HEART UK can help you view our movie “About HEART UK”.

What’s your heart age?

Heart Age is a sign of how healthy your heart is. This clever calculator works it out from a few simple questions.


HEART UK will be providing a number of annual grants. All applicants must be professional members or supporters of the organisation. 


Useful References


Sundram K, Hayes KC, Siru OH (1994) Dietary Palmitic Acid Results in Lower Serum Cholesterol Than Does a Lauric-Myristic Acid Combination in Normolipemic Humans. Am J Clin Nutr 59, 841-846.

Temme EHM, Mensink RP, Hornstra G (1996) Comparison of the effects of diets enriched with lauric, palmitic or oleic acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men and women.  Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 63: 897-903.

Zock P L, de Vries J H, Katan M B (1994) Impact of Myristic versus palmitic acid on serum lipid and lipoproteins levels in health men and women Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1994;14:567-575.


Cardiovascular Disease and risk factors:

Ference, M., Ginsburg, H., Graham, I., Ray, K et al (2017) Low density lipoproteins cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. 1. Evidence from genetic, epidemiologic and clinical studies.  A consensus statement from the European Atherosclerosis Society Pane.  European Heart Journal.  Available at: https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/eurheartj/ehx144

Yusuf, S., Hawken, S., Ôunpuu, S., Dans, T et al (2004) Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case control study. The Lancet.  Available at: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(04)17018-9/fulltext 


​Familial Hypercholesterolaemia

PCCJ sponsored Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Series

For free access to these articles, you can sign up to the PCCJ Plus Website at www.pccj.eu

Milne D (2013)  Its not just a high cholesterol, it can be an indicator of a genetic disorder. Prim Care Cardiovasc Journal.  6. pp122-124. 

Neely, R (2013).  The importance of early diagnosis: how to identify patients with FH for diagnosis and referral. Prim Care Cardiovasc Journal. 7. 1. pp31-35

Thompson, G. and Seed,  M (2014)  The management of familial hypercholesterolaemia. Prim Care Cardiovasc Journal.  7 pp89-91

Humphries, S.  and Futema, M.  (2015) What's new in FH genetics? Prim Care Cardiovasc Journal. 1. 1. Epublication online


Statins and Treatments: 

Baigent, C., Landray, M, Reith, C et al (2011) The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomised placebo-controlled trial.  The Lancet. 377. 9784. Pp2181-2192. Available online: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(11)60739-3/fulltext

Cholesterol Treatment Trialists (CTT) Collaborators. Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trials. Lancet 2010. vol 376, no 9753. 1670-1680

Cholesterol Treatment Trialists (CTT) Collaborators. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with statin therapy in people at low risk of vascular disease.  Meta analysis of individual data from 27 randomised trials. Lancet 2012. Aug 11, 380 (9841) 581-590

Cannon CP. IMPROVE-IT Trial.  A comparison of Ezetimibe/Simvastatin versus Simvastatin monotherapy on cardiovascular outcomes after acute coronary syndromes. Presented at: American Heart Association Scientific Sessions, 17 November 2014, Chicago, USA

Cannon, C., Blazing, M., Giugliano, R et al (2015) Ezetimibe added to statin therapy after acute coronary syndromes. New England Journal of Medicine. 372. pp2387-2397. Available at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1410489#t=articleTop

​Collins, R., Reith, C et al (2016) Interpretation of the evidence for the efficacy and safety of statin therapy.  Lancet. 388, 10059. pp2532-2561.  Available at: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(16)31357-5/abstract

Finegold JA, Manisty CH, Goldacre B, Barron AJ, Francis DP. What proportion of symptomatic side effects in patients taking statins are genuinely caused by the drug? Systematic review of randomised placebo controlled trials to aid individual patient choice.  European Journal of Preventative Cardiology. 2014, 21: 464

Ridker, P., Danielson, E., et al (2008)  JUPITER STUDY: Rosuvastatin to prevent vascular events in men and women with elevated C-reactive protein. New England Journal of Medicine. 359. Pp2195-2207.  Available at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa0807646#t=article

Thompson G (2008) The Cholesterol Controversy. Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd, London



PCSK9 Inhibitors:


LDL Apheresis and Plasma Exchange: (29 references)

Thompson GR, Lowenthal R, Myant R.  Plasma exchange in the management of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. Lancet 1975;1:1208-11.

Thompson GR, Myant NB, Kilpatrick D, Oakley CM, Raphael MJ, Steiner RE. Assessment of long-term plasma exchange for familial hypercholesterolaemia. Br Heart J 1980;43:680-8.

Thompson GR, Miller JP, Breslow JL. Improved survival of patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia treated by plasma exchange. Br Med J 1985;291:1671-3.

Stoffel W, Borberg H, Greve V. Application of specific extracorporeal removal of low density lipoprotein in familial hypercholesterolaemia. Lancet 1981;2:1005-7.

Yokoyama S, Hayashi R, Satani M, Yamamoto A. Selective removal of low density lipoprotein by plasmapheresis in familial hypercholesterolemia. Arteriosclerosis 1985;5:613-22.

Mabuchi H, Michishita I, Takeda M, et al. A new low density lipoprotein apheresis system using two dextran sulfate cellulose columns in an automated column regenerating unit (LDL continuous apheresis). Atherosclerosis 1989;68:19-26.

Eisenhauer T, Armstrong VW, Wieland H, Fuchs C, Scheler F, Seidel D. Selective removal of low density lipoproteins (LDL) by precipitation at low pH; first clinical application of the HELP system. Klin Woch 1987;65:161-8.

Klingel R, Mausfeld P, Fassbender C, Goehlen B. Lipidfiltration - safe and effective methodology to perform lipid-apheresis. Transfus Apher Sci 2004; 30: 245-254.

Bosch T,  Schmidt B, Kleophas W, Otto V, Samtleben W. LDL hemoperfusion - a new procedure for LDL apheresis: biocompatibility results from a first pilot study in hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis in patients. Artif Organs 1997;21:1060-5.

Richter WO, Jacob BG, Ritter MM, Sühler K, Vierneisel K, Schwandt P. Three-year treatment of familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia by extracorporeal low-density lipoprotein immunoadsorption with polyclonal apolipoprotein B antibodies. Metabolism 1993;42:888-94.

Gordon BR, Kelsey SF, Dau PC, et al for the Liposorber Study Group. Long-term effects of low-density lipoprotein apheresis using an automated dextran sulfate cellulose adsorption system. Am J Cardiol 1998;81:407-11.

Richter WO, Donner MG, Schwandt P. Three low density lipoprotein apheresis techniques in treatment of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia: a long-term evaluation. Ther Apher 1999;3:203-8.

Thompson GR. LDL apheresis. Atherosclerosis 2003; 167: 1-13.

Thompson GR, Maher VM, Matthews S, et al.  Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Regression Study: a randomised trial of low-density-lipoprotein apheresis. Lancet 1995;345:811-6.

Kroon AA,  Aengevaeren WR, van der Werf T, et al.  LDL-Apheresis Atherosclerosis Regression Study (LAARS). Effect of aggressive versus conventional lipid lowering treatment on coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation 1996;93:1826-35.

Richter WO, Donner MG, Hofling B, Schwandt P. Long-term effect of low-density lipoprotein apheresis on plasma lipoproteins and coronary heart disease in native vessels and coronary bypass in severe heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Metabolism 1998;47:863-8.

Nishimura S, Sekiguchi M, Kano T, et al.  Effects of intensive lipid lowering by low-density lipoprotein apheresis on regression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia: Japan Low-density Lipoprotein Apheresis Coronary Atherosclerosis Prospective Study (L-CAPS). Atherosclerosis 1999;144:409-17.

Park JW,  Merz M, Braun P. Regression of transplant coronary artery disease during chronic low-density lipoprotein-apheresis. J Heart Lung Transplant 1997;16:290-7.

Kroon AA,  van Asten WN, Stalenhoef AF. Effect of apheresis of low-density lipoprotein on peripheral vascular disease in hypercholesterolemic patients with coronary artery disease. Ann Intern Med 1996;125:945-54.

Koga N,  Watanabe K, Kurashige Y, Sato T, Hiroki T. Long-term effects of LDL apheresis on carotid arterial atherosclerosis in familial hypercholesterolaemic patients. J Intern Med 1999;246:35-43.

Vella A,  Pineda AA, O’Brien T. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis for the treatment of refractory hyperlipidemia. Mayo Clin Proc 2001;76:1039-46.

Moriarty PM, Gibson CA. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis in the treatment of atherosclerosis and other potential uses. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2001;3:156-62.

Bosch T,  Wendler T. State of the art of low-density lipoprotein apheresis in the year 2003. Ther Apher Dial 2004; 8: 76-9.

Thompsen J, Thompson PD. A systematic review of LDL apheresis in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, Atherosclerosis 2006; 189: 31-8

Archontakis S, Pottle A, Hakim N, Ilsley C, Barbir M.  LDL-apheresis: indications and clinical experience in a tertiary cardiac centre. Inl J Clin Pract 2007; 61: 1834-1842.

Thompson GR, HEART UK LDL Apheresis Working Group. Recommendations for the use of LDL apheresis (2008) Atherosclerosis: 198; 247-255.

Thompson GR, Barbir M, Davies D et al. Efficiency criteria and cholesterol targets for LDL apheresis. (2010) Atherosclerosis: 208;


Ulrich J, Frind A, Tselmin S et al (2008) Comparison of different LDL apheresis methods. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 6 (5), 629-639.

Julius U, TselminS, Fischer s et al (2009) The Dresden Apheresis Center – experience with LDL apheresis and immunoadsorption. Atherosclerosis Supplements 10; 12-16